Indian Infrastructure Scenario

Introduction
The development of a country’s infrastructure is vital to the growth of its sectors and the overall economy. The infrastructure sector is a key driver for the Indian economy.

The increased spending in this sector has a multiplier effect on overall economic growth as it necessitates industrial growth and manufacturing. This in turn boosts aggregate demand by improving living conditions.

The infrastructure sector primarily comprises electricity, roads, telecommunications, railways, irrigation, water supply and sanitation, ports and airports, storing facilities, and oil and gas pipelines. India was ranked 44th out of 167 countries in World Bank’s Logistics Performance Index (LPI) 2018. India is ranked second in the 2019 Agility Emerging Markets Logistics Index.

Market Size
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) received in Construction Development sector (townships, housing, built up infrastructure and construction development projects) from April 2000 to December 2019 stood at US$ 25.37 billion, according to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT). The logistics sector in India is growing at a CAGR of 10.5 per cent annually and is expected to reach US$ 215 billion in 2020.

Government Initiatives
The Government of India is expected to invest highly in the infrastructure sector, mainly highways, renewable energy and urban transport. The Government of India is taking every possible initiative to boost the infrastructure sector. Announcements in Union Budget 2019-20:

India plans to spend US$ 1.4 trillion on infrastructure in the next five years.
NHAI will be able to generate revenue of Rs one lakh crore (US$ 14.31 billion) from toll and wayside amenities over the next five years.
In the Union Budget 2020-21, the Government of India has given a massive push to the infrastructure sector by allocating Rs 1,69,637 crore (US$ 24.27 billion) for the transport infrastructure.
As per Union Budget 2020-2021, Metro rail network has touched 657 KM and Ministry of Railways have been allocated Rs 72,216 crore (US$ 10.33 billion).
Communication sector allocated Rs 38,637.46 crore (US$ 5.36 billion) to development of post and telecommunications departments.
The Indian Railways received allocation under Union Budget 2020-21 at Rs 72,216 crore (US$ 10.33 billion).
Rs 3,899.9 crore (US$ 540.53 billion) to increase capacity of Green Energy Corridor Project along with wind and solar power projects.
Allocation of Rs 8,350.00 crore (US$ 1.16 billion) to boost telecom infrastructure.
Water supply to be provided to all households in 500 cities.
Allocation of Rs 888.00 crore (US$ 110.88 million) for the upgradation of state government medical colleges (PG seats) at the district hospitals and Rs 1,361.00 crore (US$ 188.63 million) for government medical colleges (UG seats) and government health institutions.
National Infrastructure Pipeline
The National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) is a group of social and economic infrastructure projects in India over a period of five years with a sanctioned amount of ₹103 lakh crore (US$1.4 trillion). The pipeline was first made public by the Prime Minister of India during his 2019 Independence Day speech. The Finance Minister announced that the NIP consists of 78% projects by the centre and states, and the remaining by the private sector.[2] The NIP is a pillar of government of India’s aim to become a $5 trillion economy by 2025.

Allocation of funds to various sub sectors of infrastructure is shown below.

Road Ahead
India’s national highway network is expected to cover 50,000 kilometres by 2019. National highway construction in India has increased by 20 per cent year-on-year in 2017-18. The government has suggested the investment of Rs 5,000,000 crore (US$ 750 billion) for railways infrastructure between 2018-2030.

India and Japan have joined hands for infrastructure development in India’s north-eastern states and are also setting up an India-Japan Coordination Forum for Development of North East to undertake strategic infrastructure projects in the northeast.

Smart Cities Development
Apart from the above, the Government has also established Smart Cities Mission of India to look after the development of 100 smart cities across all the states of India. This ambitious program is supposed to have a planned spend of Rs. 20.5 lakh crore by year 2023.

Real Estate Sector
Real estate which is primarily a private sector industry is expected to touch US$ 180 billion or Rs. 200 lakh crore by year 2023.

Who Will Build?
There is involvement of civil engineering expertise in each of these areas not only from the site management point of view but also in planning, designing, and even financing aspects of business. With the exponential growth in infrastructure and real estate activities, the requirement for civil engineers in construction sector is also expected to grow exponentially, not only as employees but also as employers such as contractors and concessionaires. If this demand for civil engineers is not met then ‘who will build?’ is the question that will have to ask ourselves.

www.ibef.org
www.pib.gov.in
www.wikipedia.org
This article is written by Prof. Avadhut Kshirsagar

Digital Images and Videos can solve your problems.

The Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology enabled services (ITES) rules the current era. Each and every country on this planet is competing against each other to achieve mastery of this technology.

Everyone is trying to solve the problems of society through IT/ITES. With the advent of personal computers and mobile phones, technology has enabled large segments of society to have access to these services quickly and easily and all IT/ITES solutions are completely dependent on digital data being generated by these means.

There are many easy sources available to generate digital data. Easier access to personal computers, mobile phones and personal electronic gadgets has enabled every common man on the planet to create digital data at their fingertips. Usage of smart phones and other handheld devices, equipped with digital cameras have increased exponentially worldwide. This makes it easy for all to capture the digital data in the form of images and videos depicting certain events, activities, objects for future reference, evidence etc. Digital images/videos of any body part of human being, animal kingdom or for that matter any living or non-living object on this planet can be generated easily by means of cameras of different resolutions.

Increasing demand of IT/ITES has also multiplied cyber security threats, such as authentication and authorization of events, activities or users. These can be controlled by the means of Biometrics based solutions. Healthcare demands for accurate treatment can be ensured with the help of digital images captured by X-RAYS, CT SCAN, MRI, USG etc.

Country borders are being protected through digital images and videos captured by drones, and satellites used by armed forces. Almost all fields demand efficient solutions; which can be delivered through processing digital data in the form of images and videos.

Millions of images and videos are being captured every minute around the world. The future awaits image and video processing experts to interpret, analyze, and process these digital images and videos to make intelligent decisions to solve human problems efficiently. Digital images and videos are predicted to be a highly prominent type of input data to be dealt with by futuristic artificial intelligent systems that are based on machinelearning algorithms.

We, at Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and Engineering (MPSTME), Mumbai; one of the premier engineering institutions; are researching and developing expertise in the area of digital image and video processing. There are teams of image processing experts in the Faculty that are involved in training UG, PG and Doctorate students and deliver sustainable solutions for the betterment of society by the means of processing digital images and videos.

To name a few following are the areas of research being carried out by me and my students at MPSTME.

Fabric Defect detection for textile industry
Generating efficient ways of treating the spinal chord disorder.
Predicting the student’s learning levels
Efficient ways of image retrieval from large databases.
Retrieval of relevant videos from database.
This article is written byDr. Dhirendra S. Mishra, Professor, Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Digital image and Video Processing

Emerging Opportunities for Chemical Engineers Post COVID 19 Lockdown

Our country India, after China, is considered as the hub of Chemical manufacturing. In the current situation after witnessing the COVID-19 breakout, India is supplying Hydroxychloroquine, and paracetamol to many corona affected countries including USA, Israel, UK, Afghanistan, Russia, UAE, etc., as these medicines are the only hope for the pandemic. India will also be supplying testing kits, PPEs in near future to many other countries. This act of our country is more of a humanitarian task than out of commercial interest. The current economic situation may be worrying us, but it gives us a plethora of opportunities in the near future, specially for Chemicals and allied Industries. The use of detergent or soap, sanitizers, chemicals for infrastructure sanitization, hospital sanitization, polymers for PPE manufacturing, textile chemicals for manufacturing of masks, gloves, petrochemical production for quick and easy transport of essentials to each and every corner of the country are increasing and generating tremendous demand on production of this chemicals. Several chemical engineering institutions with research facilities are closely working with the industry/biosciences/ medical department in the development of drugs and vaccines.

Many countries are planning to shift their manufacturing base from China to India, giving us opportunities to design, develop and use new and advanced technologies, set up production units that work with optimum resources, cleaner productions, reduce and recycle waste, conserve energy there by reducing the cost of product. This would also help in job creation, small and micro business setups, accessories units set up to cope with demand. The future seems bright and now with proper planning and strategy India can definitely accept the challenge.

This means that the demand for Chemical engineers will rise to help in designing, redesigning, reengineering of existing units, production planning, management control and decision making, procurements, finance, operations, marketing, research and innovation, optimizing of resources, fabricate equipment, environment planning, pollution control and planning, energy generation and conservation, ensuring safe and secured work environment, and obviously being an entrepreneur – your own boss. The MBA Tech chemical course offered by MPSTME, NMIMS, brings out the right blend of qualities required for Chemical engineers to utilise their engineering knowledge interwoven with management skills to face this challenge of building a brighter India along with a healthy world with better living conditions, less pollution, more renewable resources, green chemicals and low carbon footprint.

This article is written by Nishita D. Parekh, HOD Chemical Department

5 Reasons for Cybersecurity as a Career. #5 Will Change Your Life Forever!

We are living in a digitally connected world. The Internet has changed the way we communicate, socialize, learn and do shopping. It has an impact on all facets of our life. At the same time, it has provided an opportunity to criminals as well. Cyber breaches are increasing in number as well as severity. Cybersecurity ventures predicted that the cybercrime damages will cost the world $6 trillion annually in 2021, up from $ 3 trillion in 2015. 68% of the business leaders feel that their cybersecurity risk is increasing. Gartner forecasted that the worldwide spending on cybersecurity will reach $133.7 billion in 2022.

As per a report from ISC2 workforce study, global requirement for Cybersecurity professionals is around 3 million with approximately 2 million requirements in Asia- Pacific region. In the last couple of years, the jobs in this domain have grown three times faster than other IT roles. World Economic Forum report indicates that the workforce-skills gap is more pronounced in cybersecurity than anywhere else. ‘If a college student asked me what career would most assure 50 years of steady, well-paying employment, I would say cybersecurity. The growth is steep, the need will be sustained, and this need currently comes up against a major talent shortage.’

Alec Ross, author of The Industries of the Future

Hence we list down five reasons to consider a career in cybersecurity:

Cybersecurity Degree – Job Security: With increasing cyber incident frequency and sophistication, the demand for cybersecurity professionals is far outpacing the supply. According to cybersecurity ventures, it is an industry with zero per cent unemployment rates. If you are thinking to enter the cybersecurity field, the right time is now.
You Can Earn Higher Pay: According to Burning Glass report on the state of cybersecurity hiring, Cybersecurity jobs account for 13% of all information technology jobs. On average, cybersecurity jobs pay 16% more than IT jobs.
Challenging field: You, as a cybersecurity professional, will be provided with a continuous challenge to protect your organizations from attackers. With the constant change in the technology and business environment, you will keep on learning new tools and technologies. Your upward mobility will be faster with your knowledge, skills, expertise and experience.
Job Satisfaction: The ICS 2 study found that job satisfaction is high among cybersecurity professionals. You will be satisfied that you are making a real difference in the life of people. As a cybersecurity professional, you will be protecting their personal information like bank details, health records etc. or you will be involved in the protection of critical infrastructure like the electric grid. One of the most exciting aspects of cybersecurity is that the field can be applied to many different industries, from corporates to government to non-profit organizations to SMEs. With the right skills, expertise and experience, you can decide the sector in which you want to work.
NMIMS offers cybersecurity Degree: Bachelor of Technology program is offered by NMIMS, a leading educational organization with A+ and Category –I Autonomy status in academic collaboration with Virginia Tech, USA. VT faculty members will deliver courses at NMIMS campus. Our strong industry interaction will ensure that you become industry-ready.
This article is written by Pintu R Shah

Data Visualization: A Future Hotspot

Large scale organizations have large amount of data and information to process. This data is collected from a number of sources including emails, mobile devices, applications, databases, servers and other means. Data is captured, formatted, manipulated, stored and then analyzed. Data analysis can reveal patterns, trends, and associations. Data analytics techniques can reveal trends and metrics that would otherwise be lost in the mass of information. This information can then be used to optimize processes to increase the overall efficiency of a business or system.

Data analytics is the need of the hour. It could be useful for professionals such as data scientist, business analyst, statistician or forecaster. This involves

Observing characteristics of data using statistical parameters
Using statistical techniques to generate data correlation & cross-correlation and to analyze data distribution
Discovering influential and useful elements of the data that may assist in determining the future course of action
Identifying relationships, trends, outliers, clusters to reveal influential parameters in the given data.
Data analytics is made easy by interactive data visualization. World’s leading companies, universities and government agencies are adopting data visualization -Smart visualizations to present data and results in comprehensive way.

Data visualization entails

Generating interactive graphical displays to generate analytical results and insights.
Spotting important relationships, identifying problem points and seeing trends in the data.
Generating forecasts supplemented with confidence intervals.
Visualizing changes in forecast with the change in corresponding variables.
Creating reports using visualizations to understand business performance.
Analyzing location data to identify location specific opportunities.
SVKM foresaw the future trend of Industry requirement. Industries had an intrinsic need for data manipulation, analysis, visualization and using it for prediction. There’s a need for technocrats who could cater to the above requirements.

SVKM decided to have their faculty trained and certified by SAS, internationally renowned analytics and software experts. Faculty teach Base SAS, SAS Visual Analytics and SAS Predictive Modeling. This offers a good opportunity to students to obtain globally recognized certification in the above courses. Besides training as technocrats, these courses enhance their decision making skills.

This article is written by Dr. Archana Bhise, Professor, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, NMIMS Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering, Mumbai

Why Chemical Engineering is called Universal Engineering?

Have you sometimes wondered… the things that exist on the surface of the Earth, be it natural or man-made… are the combinations of various elements (to be specific 118 elements as of now) of PERIODIC TABLE! Well that’s not an exaggeration. When we talk about chemicals, they should not be perceived as “HARMFUL only”. From the water we drink to the air we breathe, they are chemicals. Each day we handle so many chemicals and reactions thereof; cooking of food, disinfecting our floors, washing clothes with detergent, plants producing oxygen via photosynthesis, animals breathing oxygen for their life processes, etc. In fact every animal is a chemical reactor. Isn’t it inspiring that we are all various chemical species. Studying these chemicals and engineering applications for various purposes towards making life better on the Earth is more than a study. No other branch of engineering is more fundamental than chemical engineering studies.

Chemical Engineering utilizes several fundamental subjects like physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, along with engineering, to build a clean and green world. The chemical engineers design and help to get the large-scale production of almost every product with cleaner and sustainable methods, thus affecting the lives of people. Chemical engineers have been improving our lives for more than a century. From the development of speedy and nano-sized computer chips to innovation in producing life-saving drugs or ready-to-eat food that help us save time. Chemical engineers are also involved in recycling & cleaning water, generating energy, which means that the processes and products which chemical engineers create, touch every aspect of our lives.

As a chemical engineer one can work as designer of processes, equipment designing for mass production of chemicals, in marketing/sales, purchase or in quality control and quality assurance or as a process designer, project leader, in import-export, as a patent scientist, research scientist, as a strategic leader, technologist, safety manager, HAZOP study leader, environmental professional, work as forensic expert, professor to name the few. One more aspiring field is simulations and designing that can help prediction for preparation of better chemicals and develop better processes through reducing time for research by the help of a simulation expert.

In my opinion a CHEMICAL ENGINEER CAN NEVER BE JOBLESS. Many chemical engineers are entrepreneurs having small / medium or large scale industries generating jobs and helping their countries to raise the economy. The industries that employ them may help you comprehend the scope of their work. Chemical engineers work in manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, design and construction, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, food processing, specialty chemicals, dyes and paints, commercial chemicals, microelectronics, electronic and advanced materials, polymers, business services, biotechnology, and environmental health and safety industries, among others. It is also worth mentioning here that in the world patentable assets for chemicals have the highest share. There is a lot of demand for skilled and learned chemical professionals in the world. More and more youths should look forward to studying chemical engineering. In short, chemical engineers work towards the betterment of the society by improving quality of life, providing future medicines, food, convenience items as well as important materials for various purposes such as building supercomputer material.

This article is written by Dr. Ketkee Durve and Dr. Manishkumar Tiwari

Is Privacy of Indian Healthcare System a Myth?

According to the Oscar award-winning American actor and film director Marlon Brando, “Privacy is not something that I’m merely entitled to, it’s an absolute prerequisite.” According to the definition from the Cambridge dictionary, privacy is “Someone’s right to keep their matters and relationships secret”. Privacy is the fundamental right of human beings and the same has been reiterated a number of times by the juridical systems of various countries. But today, privacy and data breaches are happening every day in this world.

More than 200 million surveillance cameras are installed around China with improved facial recognition and artificial intelligence technologies. The purpose of installing these is to identify malpractices happening around cities. Through its attention on pedestrians, luxury retail stores, inside classrooms to identify students’ malpractices – the privacy of individuals has been compromised.

The healthcare industry is one of the largest and rapidly developing industries. According to IBM Global Business Services (Executive Report-2012), the focus of overall healthcare management is changing from disease-centric to patient-centric. Thus, while the analysis of healthcare data plays an important role in healthcare management, on the other hand, the privacy of patient’s records is assuming critical concern.

Preserving the privacy of medical data is not only an ethical but also a legal requirement, posed by several data-sharing regulations and policies worldwide, such as the Privacy Rule of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act in the USA, and the Data Protection Act in the UK. Besides, we are witnessing a wealth of approaches for preserving privacy in many phases of the healthcare information lifecycle, including data collection, communication and sharing, as well as the knowledge management of healthcare information. To achieve privacy goals, these approaches employ various techniques, such as cryptography, access control, and data anonymization, generalization, and perturbation.

Privacy issues in healthcare-specific domains in India are still quite lax, due to prevalent complacency, culture, politics, budget limitations, huge population and the inadequate infrastructure. Due to these factors, data security takes a backseat, allowing for easy access to confidential information. The prevalent culture also affects healthcare disclosure in India. In many cultures, the disclosure of sensitive personal healthcare data is looked down upon. This leads to discrepancies in the healthcare data recorded as well as a decline in the level of treatment prescribed. Research and statistics of treatment given many a times don’t match the records due to inaccurate reporting of data.

India is a country of large democracy and large populations. Maintaining standard infrastructure is another issue of implementing privacy. The cost required to implement a privacy model is substantial and requires funding from the government and individuals. To make the privacy model a success involves the work of specialists in the field of privacy and the field of healthcare. Budget constraints may lead to an ineffective model getting implemented which will not be secure and safe from attacks.

It’s important that privacy issues to Indian healthcare system must be addressed first. Surprisingly, there are hardly any research documents on that subject. Very few researchers have a keen interest in solving the privacy threats and data breaching issues in Indian healthcare data. This motivation made us take steps to consolidate the privacy and data breaching issues in India and make it available as an open-access manuscript. According to the limited available research, the Indian healthcare data which is already published on public platforms does not have any procedure to de-identify the individual patient’s record.

Data publishing is one of the state-of-the-art techniques of publishing healthcare data in tabular format on either public platforms such as blogs/ websites/ public columns, or for publishing selective data to discriminating individuals which can be only accessed upon authentication. Since Indian healthcare data contains sensitive information of an individual, the privacy concerns of the user must treat equally important.

According to the recent news, India’s health ministry has proposed a law to govern data security in the healthcare sector that would give individuals complete ownership of their health data. Individuals can access, share and deny the healthcare records. The draft Digital Information Security in Healthcare Act was proposed by the health ministry on March 11, 2018. The committee suggested the following key-points and developed privacy framework:

The law must be flexible and must adhere to changing technologies
Law must be applied to public and private sector entities
Entities controlling the data should be accountable for any data processing
Consent must be structured and genuine
Processing and analysis of healthcare data must be minimal
Enforcement of the data protection framework should be by a high-powered statutory authority.
The fruitful observations that can be drawn from above perspective are: Indian published health data is very diverse and collected from different heterogeneous sources; there are no proper regulations over the authorship of the health data; and any third party can get access to the sensitive data and can misuse them. The re-identification attack is the most common attack of health data wherein with the help of a group of some entities (called as quasi-identifiers), an identity of an individual can be easily determined. The proposed law mentioned in the above paragraph has guidelines and technological aspects of preserving the privacy of healthcare data.

According to our research, the proposed solution may include the awareness of understanding the procedure of how healthcare data is stored and processed. The backup of healthcare data, distribution of data among data publishers, working of consent, etc. must be clearly understood by every Indian who has healthcare records. Assurance of an individual’s healthcare data is a fundamental right of every Indian citizen. The surety can be only be increased if the technology can be implemented in publicly available Indian healthcare data. Another aspect of cognizance that we must address is to have proper authentication for accessing healthcare data.

The trust of Indian individuals to any organization is highly vacillating as far as healthcare data sharing is concerned. Every client should be properly verified before granting access to the information and should be immediately taken back if there is some suspicious activity from the user side. Verification can be done from UID/AADHAR authentication. Strong anonymization technique is still needed in heterogeneous, diverse healthcare data which should lead to data privatization, and can subsequently be used for utility analysis for further research in Indian healthcare for the betterment of the society.

Another angle of the story is the cultural and sociological view of the said problem. Literacy and awareness should be spread about the need to disclose healthcare information accurately and promptly. Healthcare privacy models can only be successful when the Indian citizens change their mindset and are willing to share their information correctly. Trust is a must be from both the sides. It should be understood that disclosing medical data is not a weakness and shouldn’t be looked down upon. Education and awareness camps should be held to inform citizens about the privacy model and the need to disclose healthcare information in a secure data environment. An evolved sociological view is essential to combat slackness and laxness prevalent in India. In addition, promotion to levels of authority should be based on merit. Corruption should be eliminated and bureaucrats should be held responsible for their failures. A strict work ethic should be established and deadlines should be met. This can be done only if the mindset of bureaucrats changes from doing something only for themselves to a mindset of doing something for the citizens and the country.

This research document is concluded by saying “Data privacy is not a product to be marketed, it is a secure, personal human right.” Thank you.

How does MBA degree with Engineering Helps?

In today’s corporate world all companies are piggybacking on technology to meet their business objectives, this is where the technology side of an engineer helps him to become an efficient manager. If as an engineer, tinkering in the research and development lab and manufacturing products is your sole passion and makes you content, then by all means, stick to your engineering degree. However, if you want to accelerate your career and are looking to venture into a managerial role, a management degree becomes imperative.

Engineering Provides the Technical Backbone

All businesses are either about making a product or providing a service. If it’s a product, it is about making sure it is manufactured well. So, engineers are better equipped to understand the technicalities and the manufacturing part of it. To that extent, in a manufacturing set up, engineering becomes key. In the service sector too, while the front end is involved in marketing the service, at the back end, it depends a lot on technologies, like IT, managing software, science and engineering.

An MBA Degree Adds Value

Having said this, all businesses are also about selling and marketing the said product or service. In this context, an engineer with an MBA degree, with a better perspective of business practices, effective communication, marketing and cash flow, can add more value. Considering that they understand the product’s technology completely, they will have a better grip on its marketable and saleable features.

MBA Grads are More In Demand

Having a business mindset always helps. In any organisation, people with a business background will always be more in number than hardcore technology people because in the end, it is all about creating economic value.

This is one of the reasons why some premier institutes are now offering dual degree integrated programs in engineering and MBA. NMIMS deemed to be University’s Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering (MPSTME), for instance, offers a unique tailormade program, MBA (Tech), which is ideal for those looking to ace in technical knowledge and gain expertise in business practices in the most efficient way. They offer the program with options in Information Technology, Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computer Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.

As opposed to completing two different programs one after the other, MBA (Tech) ensures that you are industry ready in merely 5 years. The curriculum provides conceptual, higher order learning skills and practical knowledge. The pedagogy is based on concept development through projects, case studies and practical experience in the industry. Six months of internships give the students first-hand industry experience, thus making them ready for their real-life industry stint.

Interested candidates have to give their entrance exam, the NMIMS NPAT 2020, to secure a place in this prestigious institute, which is now open.

Some perks of being an engineer with MBA:

More job avenues across sectors open up
Attracts a better salary package
Leads to better career growth
Enjoy the dual advantage of being managers who can leverage appropriate technology for business growth.
It makes you a multi-skilled person, with both technical skills as well as managerial skills that gives you better prospects for job opportunities.

One million job openings and counting… it’s Cybersecurity

According to ‘NASSCOM-DSCI: Growing Cybersecurity Industry Roadmap for India’ report, the global Cybersecurity market is expected to reach approximately $190 billion by 2025. The Cybersecurity Task force has charted out a vision to grow the Indian Cybersecurity products and services industry to $35 billion, create one million jobs and 1,000 start-ups in this sector by 2025.

As per a report from ISC2 work force study, the global requirement for cybersecurity professional is around 3 million, with around 2 million requirements in the Asia-Pacific region alone. In the last couple of years, the jobs in this domain have grown three times faster than other IT roles. A World Economic Forum report indicates that the workforce-skills gap is more pronounced in cybersecurity than anywhere else. According to cybersecurity ventures, it is an industry with zero percent unemployment rate. In the video below, PM Shri Narendra Modi highlights the need for cybersecurity and how India should come up with solutions to meet the challenge posed by this threat of “bloodless war”.

Secure your future with cybersecurity

The exponential growth of cyber incidents means that cybersecurity can no longer be isolated to IT departments – it needs to be addressed across all functions of an organisation or business. Companies are looking to employ people with a skillset beyond Computer Science, Engineering, and Information Technology as a solution to the recurring cases of cybersecurity lapses.

Get a Degree in Cybersecurity

‘If a college student asked me what career would most assure 50 years of steady, well-paying employment, I would say cybersecurity. The growth is steep, the need will be sustained, and this need currently comes up against a major talent shortage.’

Alec Ross, author of The Industries of the Future

NMIMS Deemed to be University has always been in the forefront to recognize and address the need of the industry in every sector. With their pulse on the current scenario, their program, B. Tech in Cybersecurity, focus on producing talents in this much needed and emerging field.

When technology was a toddler and growing to the stage of teenager:

The program is designed in consultation with the industry to meet the needs of employers. It will provide an opportunity to pursue international certifications like Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), CCNA Security etc., which are approved by the US Department of Defence. A strong industry interface, which is the USP of NMIMS Deemed to be University, will ensure that the students passing out are industry ready and an asset to the companies hiring them.

The admission to this program is through their entrance exam, NMIMS-NPAT. Register and enroll now for a soaring career as a cybersecurity professional.

Integrating & Synergizing with “Technology – the Teenager”

Today technology is influencing practically every aspect of our lives. The pace and scope of its development is so fast and widespread, that it gives rise to an apprehension that one day it may take control of our lives. One shudders to think of that day when it may make us totally redundant or we may become its slaves.

It is therefore important for us to consider whether we should allow it to do so. And if the answer is NO, then we must find ways to keep pace with it on one hand and learn to harmonize our thoughts and action with it.

The big question is how can this be done? The answer is not simple and straight.

One way of finding an answer, is to personify technology. In other words, let us consider that technology is also like a human being-growing from childhood to adulthood. This approach has a great advantage because then we are dealing with interpersonal relationship of two humans- say parents nurturing their wards (after all, humans have only brought technology as well as children into the world), from the stage of toddler to school going children to adolescent (teenagers) and finally to adulthood. It may be recalled that technological development has passed through practically all the aforesaid stages.

When technology was a toddler and growing to the stage of teenager:

When a child learns to walk, s/he is referred to as a toddler. The toddler stage is characterized by much growth and change, mood swings and a lot of innocent experimentation. Technology had started becoming commonplace in India in the 60’s and early 70’s with the advent of Radio and later the Television. Technology had started growing up in Indian homes, just like a toddler, displaying following characteristics:

It needed to be nurtured and supported: During development stage, technology also needed support, as the child needs it when s/he stumbles.
Snags had to be removed and mistakes had to be corrected: At that tender age it faulted at times and the parent would lovingly take care of it. If technology was not able provide desired results, the mistakes could be corrected, just how a parent responds when the child throw a tantrum.
It needed pampering: Sometimes the technology also had to be pampered. Many gadgets for example, were so delicate that any rough handling could result in erratic behavior. It needed to be handled with care.
It also needed attention: Like a toddler, technology also needed attention. If left unattended it could not only harm itself but also adversely affect its surroundings, we had to be careful about over heating of the instant electric geysers.
It Listened: Nevertheless, just like a child, it would still listen and abide by the instructions. In case it did not listen, it could be spanked and made to behave (for example when a TV would suddenly develop disturbing sounds with several horizontal grid lines, the problem could be overcome by simply tapping on TV top).
Intervention also required: Although technology learnt to improve by itself to some extent, but human intervention became necessary when it reached its limits.
It could also be ‘pushed’: Technology could also be pushed to produce desired results, if certain snags hampered its progress (remember the Ambassador and Fiat cars could be pushed to start, if did not do it by itself after a couple of days of non-use).
It could be ‘driven’ and ‘maneuvered’: Automobiles were could ‘driven’ and ‘maneuvered’ to follow the desired path, just as the little toddler is mostly guided by the parent holding her hand and nudging her to toe the line.
When technology became teenager

A person aged between 13 and 19 is generally referred to as a teenager. It also happens to be adolescent stage of a child. The technology, at the present stage of development, can be said to be at the stage, which is more or less akin to the adolescent stage of a child. It displays similar characteristics / qualities as that of a teenager. The typical characteristics of a teenager or that of an adolescent, which the technology also displays at this stage of its development, can be briefly described as follows:

Mind of its own (it self-learns and cannot be taught all the time): The technology started to, partially learn by itself, just as a child at this stage of development displays mind of his own. It did not need spoon feeding at every stage and could perform many functions by itself (remember the earlier stages of development of computers).
Believes in action, more than thought: A teenager is always bubbling with energy, having a bias towards action. Similarly, technology also started displaying its ability of dynamism in action, like the programmed Robots in a production unit.
Parent (one who created it) cannot comprehend its action: It is hard for the parents to anticipate or fully understand the action contemplated by the teenager. Similarly it is hard for the user, of a technology driven gadget or machines, to predict all possible outcomes. Technology is able to take corrective actions on its own without any human intervention; Artificial General Intelligence driven robots can be beyond human comprehension.
Peers become more important than parents: It is a common experience of parents, who have or are seeing their wards growing to become teenager, is that children at this stage listen to the advice or copy their peers more than their parents. They ‘network’ with peers better than with parents, as computers do in a networking environment, without any intervention or assistance from the parent. Parent is mostly forgotten.
Fiercely independent: Like a teenager, technology is also tending to be fiercely independent, in as much as it is able to find its way, in case it encounters any hindrance or an unusual event.
Self-evolving: Teenagers, as they grow in age, gradually evolve to become better and more fruitful. Similarly technology has also gradually evolved from 1D through 2D and 3D to 4D; as also data speeds evolving from 2G to 4G and now getting to 5G, shortly.
Self-learning: Teenage also brings maturity to some extent. Self- learning abilities get enhanced. Machine learning algorithms are mostly built around self-correcting techniques and do not need outside intervention.
Self-healing: In the case of technology, it is already under display in some of the fields like IoH- Internet of Humans, IoT- Internet of Things etc. (IoT for health is keeping tab on our activities and lifestyle, pre-empts about when we are going to default next, ‘prompts’ us to comply).
Always thinks it is right: Adolescence brings in certain amount of arrogance. One starts to believe that s/he is always right whether it is true or not. Technology, at this stage, is no different. If you were to ask a Robot, why is there still a 5% error in quality, it would say, “Remove those 60 human beings handling me and I will show you 0% error.”
So where does that leave the parents (Global society of human beings)? What’s their role now?

One thing is clear, that as parents cannot completely control the extent and direction of growth of their children, human beings also cannot do the same with regard to the development & growth of technology. The best course would be to integrate & synergize your thinking and actions in line with technological developments on one hand, and take effective steps to ensure that it does not go astray, on the other.

Here are some suggestions, these may not be comprehensive, but do show a way forward:

Watch it grow- with pride: As technology is also our ‘child’, we should allow it to grow and also take pride in its growth. Growth will ensure that it achieves its potential and becomes useful to the society.
But “watch” it..: During this period of growth, keeping a watch would also be necessary, to ensure that the growth is healthy and not wild and the outcomes are desirable and useful. Something that the world did when nuclear technology was invented.
Keep course corrections in place through a friendly “pat”: As soon as it is noticed that the developments are not on the right lines, course corrections should be attempted with ‘friendly pats’. Remember that teenagers cannot be ordered about, but can be reasoned or cajoled to remain on the right path. Likewise if technological developments are threatening, the world organizations need to come together to devise policies for reigning in the rogue effects of technology.
Change your own behavior to suit the teenage child: Whether it is teenager children or technology (at similar stage), it is not always possible to persuade them to change their ways, (even by reasoning or cajoling), it then becomes imperative for us to change ourselves and adapt to the circumstances, to their ways and lifestyles, because that is going to be the future.
Pre-empt the dangers and safeguard yourself against the onslaught of technology: Even after taking all the steps, suggested above, there is no guarantee that technology will never misbehave and not harm you. Therefore, taking pre-emptive steps (like installing ‘screens’ to prevent ‘bugs’ entering the computers, or building ‘firewalls’ to prevent data leakages), may be desirable. One can also explore the possibility of taking an insurance policy, “against the act of technology”, if such an insurance is possible.
Have a ‘Parents Community’ (an Association): Many times it is not possible to find solutions yourself. However, if the problem is discussed in a group of people, having similar concerns, feasible solutions evolve via collective wisdom.
Support Technology in making it stronger, but make yourself wiser: Remember the riddle, which required you to make a line short, without erasing any part of it? The solution, as you know is to draw a line longer than the given line, thus making the given line look shorter. In the same way it is better to equip yourself, to keep pace with fast changing technologies.
Keep the communication with it open; learn their language: Instead of surrendering to the onslaught of technologies, it would be wiser to learn their ‘language’ (learn to deal with them) and use these to your advantage.
Technology also needs to have a culture…(local culture): Technology, if developed without the knowledge of the culture of the area in which it is going to be used, or the context of its usage, it may become unusable. For example, in the Indian context, the technology should be suited to local conditions and culture. A technology which may be labor intensive but low cost may be more suitable in India. In remote areas, where availability/ usage of electricity is limited, a cooling device, like “Miticool- Village Fridge”, may be more appropriate and acceptable to local people rather than a highly sophisticated, multi-function refrigerator.
Identify real news from ‘fake’ and act accordingly: The technology, at present juncture, is as susceptible to ‘fake’ news as, normally, a teenager is. However, it has to be taught to identify and propagate only real news and ignore, if not eliminate the fake news.
Set of ‘values’ it has to keep: As in a civil society, it is important for children to imbibe and maintain a set of ‘human/social values’, technology must also incorporate and keep similar ‘values’ to remain credible for the users. For example, as it sucks up data about all human beings, it needs to maintain secrecy as required. It must prevent fraud, lies and theft of data. In short, the technology also has to be so developed that it observes all ethical values.
Competition: Competition between teenagers as also amongst competing technologies, is desirable, so long as it remains healthy competition. Only healthy competition can bring about excellence. However, if it deviates from that path and tries to win by adopting unethical ways and means, the ultimate results can only be ‘disaster’.
Prevent it from becoming ‘Bhasmasur’: The present stage of technological development is somewhat akin to an adolescent boy transiting to the stage of adulthood. Unless handled with care, it can become the legendary ‘Bhasmasur’, bent upon destroying the “creator”. Ultimately, he was made to bring about his own end, by the “creator” himself. All those involved in development and use of advanced technologies must learn this lesson carefully, lest they give birth to another ‘Bhasmasur’.
Conclusion:

Technology is required by us as much as we need our children.

Next generation of humans as well as that of technology are necessary for progress and progression. Both must grow. Technology is not our adversary, it has become a part of us. Only care has to be taken to keep it in control, so that at no stage, we become its slaves.

Managing Technology is an art that can be practiced by companies and individuals alike to be able to leverage the strengths of Technology to achieve their business and personal goals. An art that can integrate Technology with Management and Business.

As we fade away from this world, we should go with the trust that the technology will provide for the natural resources and basic needs, for inclusive and sustainable development & growth of all future generations of human species to come.

What is needed is Integrating & Synergizing with technology, to manage it well.

Dr. Anuja Agarwal,
Associate Dean – Technology Management,
Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering
SVKM’s NMIMS University
Mumbai